图片 1图片源于:BBC

Gender, education and work: The weaker sex

Boys are being outclassed by girls at both school and university, and the gap is widening


“IT’S all to do with their brains and bodies and chemicals,” says Sir Anthony Seldon, the master of Wellington College, a**posh**English**boarding school**. “There’s a**mentality**that it’s not cool for them to perform, that it’s not cool to be smart,” suggests Ivan Yip, principal of the Bronx Leadership Academy in New York. One school charges £25,000 ($38,000) a year and has a**scuba-diving**club; the other serves subsidised lunches to most of its pupils, a quarter of whom have**special needs**. Yet both**are grappling with**the same problem: teenage boys are being left behind by girls.

一所高端韩语寄宿学园的校长Anthony托Seldon称“那完全在于他们的大脑、身体和荷尔蒙”。LondonBronx Leadership Academy参谋长IvanYip称“他们分布认为努力是不酷的,聪明是不酷的”。前面一个收取金钱3.8万澳元一年并存在潜水俱乐部;而另贰个为其大多数学生提供午饭补贴,三分之一的学员有非凡教学供给。可是,它们都一律致力于化解一样难题:青年男孩远远滞后于女孩。

It is a problem that would have been unimaginable a few decades ago. Until the 1960s boys spent longer and went further in school than girls, and were more likely to graduate from university. Now, across the rich world and in a growing number of poor countries, the balance has**tilted**the other way. Policymakers who once fretted about girls’ lack of confidence in science now spend their time dangling copies of “Harry Potter” before surly boys. Sweden has commissioned research into its “boy crisis”. Australia has devised a reading programme called “Boys, Blokes, Books & Bytes”. In just a couple of generations, one gender gap has closed, only for another to open up.


The**reversal**is laid out in a report published on March 5th by the OECD, a Paris-based rich-country think-tank. Boys’ dominance just about endures in maths: at age 15 they are, on average, the equivalent of three months’ schooling ahead of girls. In science the results are fairly even. But in reading, where girls have been ahead for some time, a gulf has appeared. In all 64 countries and economies in the study, girls outperform boys. The average gap is equivalent to an**extra**year of schooling.


The OECD**deems**literacy**to be the most**important skill that it assesses, since further learning depends on it. Sure enough, teenage boys are 50% more likely than girls to fail to achieve basic proficiency in any of maths, reading and science (see chart 1). Youngsters in this group, with nothing to**build on**or**shine at**, are prone to drop out of school altogether.


To see why boys and girls fare so differently in the classroom, first**look at**what they do outside it. The average 15-year-old girl devotes five-and-a-half hours a week to homework, an hour more than the average boy, who spends more time playing video games and**trawling the internet**. Three-quarters of girls read for pleasure, compared with little more than half of boys. Reading rates are falling everywhere as screens draw eyes from pages, but boys are giving up faster. The OECD found that, among boys who do as much homework as the average girl, the gender gap in reading fell by nearly a quarter.


Once in the classroom, boys**long to**be out of it. They are twice as likely as girls to report that school is a “waste of time”, and more often turn up late. Just as teachers used to struggle to persuade girls that science is not only for men, the OECD now urges parents and policymakers to steer boys away from a version of**masculinity**that ignores academic achievement. “There are different pressures on boys,” says Mr Yip. “Unfortunately there’s a tendency where they try to**live up to**certain expectations in terms of [bad] behavior.”


Boys’**disdain**for school might have been less irrational when there were plenty of jobs for uneducated men. But those days**have long gone**. It may be that a bit of swagger helps in maths, where confidence plays a part in boys’ lead (though it sometimes extends to**delusion**: 12% of boys told the OECD that they were familiar with the mathematical concept of “subjunctive scaling”, a red herring that fooled only 7% of girls). But their lack of self-discipline drives teachers crazy.


Perhaps because they can be so insufferable, teenage boys are often marked down. The OECD found that boys did much better in its anonymized tests than in teacher assessments. The gap with girls in reading was a third smaller, and the gap in maths—where boys were already ahead—opened up further. In another finding that suggests a lack of even-handedness among teachers, boys are more likely than girls to be forced to repeat a year, even when they are of equal ability.


What is behind this discrimination? One possibility is that teachers mark up students who are**polite, eager and stay out of fights**, all**attributes**that are more common among girls. In some countries, academic points can even be**dock**ed for bad behaviour. Another is that women, who make up eight out of ten primary-school teachers and nearly seven in ten lower-secondary teachers, favour their own sex, just as male bosses have been shown to favour male underlings. In a few places sexism is**enshrined**in law: Singapore still**canes**boys, while**sparing**girls the rod.是什么

导致这种差别对待?一种大概的讲解是教师的资质给予那三个礼貌、热心和隔断打斗的上学的小孩子更加高分数,而这个特点在女孩中国和越南社会主义共和国发遍布。在有的国家,以至会因不良行为而扣掉学业分数。另一种恐怕是,女子,构成了五分四的小教的和类似十分之七的初中等教育师,更偏心她们本身的性别,就像男子上级偏好男人下属平时。在部分地点在French Open中也许有性别主义:新加坡共和国依旧允许鞭刑男人,而女性则免于这个国家际法。

Some countries provide an environment in which boys can do better. In Latin America the gender gap in reading is relatively small, with boys in**Chile**,**Colombia**,**Mexico**and**Peru**trailing girls less than they do elsewhere. Awkwardly, however, this nearly always**comes with**a wider gender gap in maths,**in favour of**boys. The reverse is true, too: Iceland, Norway and Sweden, which have got girls up to parity with boys in maths, struggle with uncomfortably wide gender gaps in reading. Since 2003, the last occasion when the OECD did a big study, boys in a few countries have caught up in reading and girls in several others have significantly narrowed the gap in maths. No country has managed both.

在有一点点国家为男孩展现特出提供了境遇。在拉美,阅读方面包车型大巴性别差距相对非常小。如智利、哥伦比亚(República de Colombia)、墨西哥和秘鲁共和国的汉子落后于女孩子小于别的地点。但是,令人纠缠的是,那总伴随着男人在数学方面抢先于女人的差异加大。反过来也创造。女孩与男孩在数学方面突显非常的冰岛、Noreg和瑞士联邦,挣扎于令人发怒的逐年加宽的读书方面性别差距。自二零零三年OECD最终三回就此开展的广泛调查展现,少数国度男子在阅读方面碰着了女孩子,而在另一对国度女子成功裁减了数学方面包车型大巴歧异。但从不国家成功达成双方。

Girls’ educational dominance**persists**after school. Until a few decades ago men were in a clear majority at university almost everywhere (see chart 2), particularly in advanced courses and in science and engineering. But as higher education has boomed worldwide, women’s enrolment has increased almost twice as fast as men’s. In the OECD women now make up 56% of students enrolled, up from 46% in 1985. By 2025 that may rise to 58%.


Even in the handful of OECD countries where women are in the minority on campus, their numbers**are creeping up**. Meanwhile several, including America, Britain and parts of Scandinavia, have 50% more women than men on campus. Numbers in many of America’s elite private colleges are more evenly balanced. It is widely believed that their opaque admissions criteria are relaxed for men.


The feminisation of higher education was so gradual that for a long time it passed unremarked. According to Stephan Vincent-Lancrin of the OECD, when in 2008 it published a report pointing out just how far it had gone, people “couldn’t believe it”.

高教的女子化进程如此缓慢,以致于在十分长日子内未被人察觉。据OECD的Stephan Vincent-Lancrin称,当二零一零年一份有关告知摘即刻,大家“不相信任那结果”。

Women who go to university are more likely than their male peers to graduate, and typically get better grades. But men and women tend to study different subjects, with many women choosing courses in education, health, arts and the humanities, whereas men take up computing, engineering and the**exact sciences**. In mathematics women are**drawing level**; in the life sciences, social sciences, business and law they have moved ahead.


Social change has done more to encourage women to enter higher education than any deliberate policy.**The Pill**and a decline in the average number of children, together with later marriage and childbearing, have made it easier for married women to join the workforce. As more women went out to work, discrimination became less**sharp**. Girls saw the point of study once they were expected to have careers. Rising divorce rates underlined the importance of being able to provide for yourself. These days girls nearly everywhere seem more ambitious than boys, both academically and in their careers. It is hard to believe that in 1900-50 about half of jobs in America were barred to married women.

对峙于任何蓄意的政策,社会变革更有利于于慰勉女性步入高等教育。口服避孕片和平均育儿数量的暴跌,以及晚婚和晚育等,为已婚女子搜索职业提供了有益。随着更多女子走入工作蒙受,歧视变得没那么确定。一旦女子被期望全体职业发展时,女孩就开采到学习的第一。上涨的离异率使得女人意识到本人供养的要害。近年来,无论是学业上照旧职场上,世界各省的女孩比男孩表现出更南充想。无缘无故,在19世界上半叶,大约大半United States做事幸免已婚女子从事。

So are women now on their way to becoming the dominant sex? Hanna Rosin’s book, “The End of Men and the Rise of Women”, published in 2012, argues that in America, at least, women are ahead not only**educationally**but increasingly also**professionally**and**socially**. Policymakers in many countries worry about the**prospect**of a growing**underclass**of**ill-educated men**. That should worry women, too: in the past they have typically married men in their own social group or above. If there are too few of those, many women will have**to marry down**or not at all.

那正是说,女人是还是不是渐渐变为中央性别?出版于贰零壹叁年的Ranna Rosin的《The End of Men and the Rise of Women》中建议,起码在美利坚合作国,女子不但教育上遥遥当先,还在职业上和社会上超越。好多国度的战术制订者忧郁数量逐年攀升的下层阶级的教诲程度异常的低的男性的以后前景。女子也应当担心那一点。在过去,女人平常与同阶层或超过本身阶层的男人成婚。如果这种男子少之又少,大非常多女性只好搜索下阶层男子或选拔不拜天地。

According to the OECD, the return on investment in a degree is higher for women than for men in many countries, though not all. In America PayScale, a company that**crunches**incomes data, found that the return on investment in a college degree for women was lower than or at best the same as for men. Although women as a group are now better qualified, they earn about three-quarters as much as men. A big reason is the choice of subject: education, the humanities and social work pay less than engineering or computer science. But academic research shows that women attach less importance than men to the graduate pay premium, suggesting that a high financial return is not the main reason for their further education.

据OECD彰显,虽不是整个,可是在数不完国家,高教投入对女子的报恩超过男人。一家募集收入多少的商店America PayScale开采,女人对于大学文化水平的投资报酬率绝对于男子来讲,相当低或(在极端意况下)相似。纵然女子完全展现极其,但他们薪酬水平仅为男人的3/4。主因在于相对于工程或微型计算机科学等,女子选拔教育、人文和社科这类报酬非常的低科目。但是,学术研讨显示相对于男子,女人越来越少的关注薪给,呈现了谋求高回报并不是女人追求高教的主要原因。

At the highest levels of business and the professions, women remain notably scarce. In a reversal of the pattern at school, the anonymous and therefore gender-blind essays and exams at university protect female students from bias. But in the workplace, says Elisabeth Kelan of Britain’s Cranfield School of Management, “traditional patterns assert themselves in miraculous ways”. Men and women join the medical and legal professions in roughly equal numbers, but 10-15 years later many women have chosen unambitious career paths or dropped out to spend time with their children. Meanwhile men**are rising through the ranks**as qualifications gained long ago fade in importance and personality, ambition and experience come to matter more.

在高高的层级的生意和正式领域,女子依旧非常少。女子在全校所表现优势被转败为胜。在学园,杂谈及考试评价是无名氏的,性别因素被防止,而尊敬女性不受性别歧视的震慑。然则,来自于United KingdomCraneField电子艺术学院的Elisabeth Kelan称,在劳作地方守旧形式再一次评释本人。同等数量的男人和女子投入工大学和法律高校,不过,10-15年过后,比非常多女子选拔了特别干燥的专门的学业路径或花费更多日子陪孩子。与此同期,随着以前习得的阅历的第一慢慢消失而性格、雄心和经历成为更为首要的熏陶因素,男子在职业层级上日益攀升。

For a long time it was said that since women had historically been**underrepresented**in university and work, it would take time to fill the pipeline from which senior appointments were made. But after 40 years of making up the majority of graduates in some countries,**that argument is wearing thin**. According to Claudia Goldin, an economics professor at Harvard, the “last chapter” in the story of women’s rise—equal pay and access to the best jobs—will not come without big structural changes.


In a recent paper in the American Economic Review Ms Goldin found that the difference between the hourly earnings of highly qualified men and their female peers grows hugely in the first 10-15 years of working life, largely because of a big**premium**in some highly paid jobs on putting in long days and being constantly on call. On the whole men find it easier than women to work in this way. Where such jobs are common, for example in business and the law, the gender pay gap remains wide and even**short spells**out of the workforce are severely penalised, meaning that**motherhood**can**exact**a heavy price. Where pay is roughly proportional to hours worked, as in pharmacy, it is low.


There will always be jobs where flexibility is not an option, says Ms Goldin: those of CEOs, trial lawyers, surgeons, some bankers and senior politicians come to mind. In many others, pay does not need to depend on being**available all hours**—and well-educated men who want a life outside work would benefit from change, too. But the new gender gap is at the other end of the pay spectrum. And it is not women who are suffering, but unskilled men.


  Girls outperform boys in school exams

  Vocabulary: education: 词汇:教育

  Around the world, girls do better than boys at school。 These are the findings of a recent study that looked at the test results of 1.5 million 15-year-olds in 74 regions across the globe。

  The level of gender equality in those regions made no difference to the results。 Other factors, such as the income level of the region also had little impact on the findings。 In only three regions – Colombia, Costa Rica and the Indian state Himachal Pradesh – was the trend reversed with boys doing better。

  So what are the causes of girls’ stronger performance? In the UK, girls outperform boys in exams that are taken at the age of 15 or 16, called GCSEs。 According to education expert Ian Toone, this is down to the way girls and boys are brought up。 “Boys are encouraged to be more active from an early age, whereas the restless movements of baby girls are pacified… Hence, girls develop the skill of sitting still for longer periods of time, which is useful for academic pursuits like studying for GCSEs。“

  He goes on to say that boys often cluster together in larger groups than girls。 Because of this they are more likely to be influenced by peer pressure and develop a gang mentality。 He says that GCSEs require a lot of solo work and are not viewed as ‘cool’ in a laddish culture。

  This is backed up by research in the UK that says girls are out-performing boys at the age of five。 So what is the answer? Should girls and boys be educated separately? Or do exams and school curricula need to be changed to better reflect boys’ skills? These are the questions facing educators in many countries。

  Glossary 词汇表

  gender equality男女同样


  income level收入水平

  to reverse a trend反败为胜一种趋势

  to pacify使安静、平定

  academic pursuit学术追求

  to cluster(人)聚集

  to influence影响

  peer pressure同龄人压力

  gang mentality黑手党心态




  school curricula学园课程

  to reflect反映


实习编辑:王雨欣 小编:赵润琰


关键词: 管家婆


图形来源人民晚报国外版 【作者李晓艳系南非共和国华夏知识和国际教育交换核心万世师表课堂首任中方省长】 实习...






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